At present the Black Sea is one of the degenerating sea basins. The specific feature of the Black Sea is strong anthropogenic impact caused by industrial development of the shelf area, oil and gas transportation and intensive input of biogenous elements with river flows. According to UNESCO estimates, the Black Sea is one of the most degenerating water basins in the world. Moreover, one more specific feature of the Black Sea is the presence of hydrogen sulfide in deeper water layers that, in case of natural and technical disasters, may lead to contamination of the near-water atmosphere with hydrogen sulfide.
Therefore, the intensification of industrial development of the Black Sea water area should go hand-in-hand with continuous environmental monitoring and preparation of short-term forecasts of the sea basin condition.
Development of the analysis methods for condition of the sea environment will help to evaluate the probable spatial and temporal evolution of ecological pollution and to address with adequate confidentiality the disputable issues concerning legal responsibility of a country guilty in environment pollution.
The prognostic analysis of dynamics of environmental pollution assumes implementation of the following main stages:
- Study of water area condition in the regions with the anthropogenic sources of pollution applying the multi-component diagnostic and control system (regular space distant observations, long-term measurements from autonomous platforms through satellite or acoustic systems for data transmission).
- Prognostic modeling of hydrophysical fields and hydrodynamic processes of the sea basin.
As a result of joint investigations conducted in 2003-2008 by the Institute of Oceanology, Design Bureau of Oceanologic Equipment of the Russian Academy of Sciences and NASU Marine Hydrographic Institute, the system for diagnosis and forecast of the geophysical condition of the Black Sea basin was developed and is used in executive regime.
- Comparative analysis of large-scale hydrologic data and numerical computation of synoptic variability of the sea surface.
Regular distant space observations, long-term measurements from autonomous platforms through satellite or acoustic systems for data transmission allows development of the systems for diagnosis and forecasting of the sea environment condition, applying modern computers, digital models of oceanic processes and techniques of observation assimilation.
Such systems permit optimal integration of dissimilar measurements and presentation in a convenient form of the continuous evolution of the oceanic fields with a rather high accuracy.
Realization of the “Environmental Monitoring of the Black Sea basin” project will comprise appliance of satellite systems for operating monitoring on the basis of space radar that provides possibility to get image of the sea surface regardless meteorological conditions and satellite scanning spectroradiometers, that can control the matter of composition of the surface layer of the sea.